Psoriasis is a disease that on the skin appear red, peeling and Horny eruptions on the skin, covered with scaly white-silvery.
Normally, these rashes appear on the elbows, knees, scalp and in the lumbar region, but can also be observed in other places. The majority of people small rashes. In some cases, they may itch or become sick.
In Russia, the psoriasis, which afflicts about 1% of the population, many times, flake ringworm is common among the natives of the north. Men and women suffer equally. The first symptoms of psoriasis appear until the age of 30 years, however, the later the onset of psoriasis — it is not uncommon. The severity of psoriasis each person varies greatly. Someone psoriasis only a little annoying, while other people psoriasis prevents to lead a normal life.
Psoriasis is a chronic disease, which, usually, there are periods of remission — no symptoms or poorly symptomatic, after which come the periods of exacerbation, when symptoms become more pronounced.
Psoriasis occurs when the speed up the process of reproduction of an organism the cells of the skin. The cells of the skin are generally produced and exchanged every 3 or 4 months, but when the psoriasis this process is shortened to 3-7 days. As a consequence, occurs the accumulation of skin cells, which leads to the appearance of characteristics of changes in the body.
The causes of psoriasis are not yet clear, it is believed that an increase of the reproduction of skin cells is related to immune system disorders. The immune system is a natural protection of the body against infections and disease, but people with psoriasis it of error attacks the healthy cells of the skin.
Psoriasis can be transmitted by inheritance, and, therefore, it is believed that this disease there is a genetic factor. However, it is still not clear what is the role of genetics in the onset of psoriasis.
Many people, the symptoms of psoriasis appear or are enlarged after an event, which is called the trigger. Possible triggers when psoriasis include skin injuries, infections, diseases of the throat and the reception of a particular medicine. This disease is not contagious and cannot be transmitted from one person to another.
When there is suspicion of psoriasis you should consult a doctor. Many times, the doctor can make a diagnosis judging by the appearance of your skin. Typically, for the diagnosis and treatment of psoriasis the patient's head to a dermatologist specialist skin problem diseases.
Although the healing of the psoriasis is not possible, there are a number of treatments that can alleviate the symptoms and improve the appearance of the skin. In most cases, in the first place will be assigned a treatment site, such as, for example, the analogs of vitamin D or corticosteroids local action. In the most severe cases, when not to help other treatment methods, can be applied to a treatment system. The treatment system is the reception by the oral route or by injection of drugs that corrective action for the entire body.
For some people, psoriasis is just a minor problem, but sometimes it may influence a lot in your life. For example, some patients with psoriasis have lower self-esteem, how the illness has affected your appearance. Often, also when psoriasis appears painful sensitivity, pain and swelling of the joints and connective tissues. This is called psoriatic arthritis.
The symptoms of psoriasis
In most cases, the psoriasis flows in a cyclic way: every few weeks or months of disease exacerbated, and then the symptoms become less visible or disappear, and there comes a remission.
There are several types of psoriasis. Many become ill only a form of psoriasis, although perhaps the disease of two different types at the same time. One type can transform into another type, or a gender perspective. When there is suspicion of psoriasis you should consult a doctor.
Common types of psoriasis
Of ordinary psoriasis. It is the most common form of psoriasis, which accounts for about 90% of all cases. Symptoms — dry red skin education, called plaques, covered with scales of silver-white. Usually they appear to you on the elbows, knees, scalp and lower back but can also appear in any other places. The name tag may itch and / or hurt. In severe cases of the skin at the joints may crack and bleed.
Psoriasis of the scalp (dermatitis, psoriasis) can occur in the scalp or adjacent areas of the skin, and also on the back and chest. Causes a reddish rash, covered with dense scales silver-white. In some people, this type of psoriasis causes intense itching, while others, which do not cause any discomfort. In more severe cases can lead to hair loss, more often than temporary.
Psoriasis of the nails. About half of the psoriasis patients, a disease spreads to the nails. When the psoriasis in your nails may appear small sump or deepening, they may lose the color and the shape. Many times, the nail may be loosened and move away from the bed in which they are. In severe cases, the nail may crumble.
When the psoriasis in drops appear small (less than 1 cm) plate in the form of a drop in the chest, on the hands, feet and under the hair on the head. It has a high likelihood that the guttate psoriasis is totally pass for a few weeks, but in some people it becomes a common psoriasis. This type of psoriasis sometimes appears after streptococcal infections of the throat, and they get sick more often children and teenagers.
Psoriasis folds - are surprised with folds of skin, such as, for example, in the armpits, in the groin, between the buttocks, or under the milk by the glands. Can arise large soft precipitation in some or all of these areas. The symptoms become more clear when friction and sweat, therefore, can deliver special inconvenient in hot weather.
More a rare type of psoriasis on your skin, appear pustules (blisters with purulent content). Different types of pustular psoriasis amazed different parts of the body.
Generalized pulstole psoriasis psoriasis background Tsumbush). Pustules occur on a large surface of the skin and they develop very quickly. The pus consists of white blood cells and their appearance is not always directly related with the infection. The pustules can cycles appear again every few days or weeks. At the beginning of these cycles psoriasis background Tsumbush can cause fever, chills, weight loss, and chronic fatigue.
Palmar-plantar psoriasis. Pustules appear on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. Gradually turn into pustules rounded brown plate with scales, which is then separated from the skin. The pustules may reappear every few days or weeks.
Pustular acrodermatitis (acrobustulosis). Pustules appear on the fingers of your hands and feet. Then, the pustules burst, then they become bright red area, that may secrete liquid or accumulate the time. It can cause painful deformation of the nail.
Erythrodermic psoriasis (psoriatic erythroderma)
Erythrodermic psoriasis — a rare form of psoriasis, affects almost the entire surface of the skin. This causes a strong itching or burning sensation. Because of erythrodermic psoriasis your body can lose proteins and liquid. This can lead to the appearance of other complications, such as infection, dehydration, heart failure, hypothermia and exhaustion.
The causes of psoriasis
Psoriasis occurs when the skin cells are divided and updated more quickly than usual. The causes of psoriasis are not yet clear. The body produces new cells in the heart the deep layer of the skin. These cells move gradually to the top. Came out to the surface, they die. This normal process occurs more slowly and invisibly to us. The skin cells are updated once every 3-4 weeks.
In people with psoriasis, this process has the duration of only 3 to 7 days. The result are not yet fully mature cells rapidly accumulate on the surface of the skin, causing the appearance of red, peeling and Horny eruptions, covered with scaly white-silvery. It is believed that the patients of psoriasis, the skin cells are changing more rapidly due to diseases of the immune system.
The immune system is the body's defense, which helps fight infection. One of the main types of cells, which uses the immune system, called lymphocytes.
The t lymphocytes, normally, are moved through the body, are infection and fight with them. People with psoriasis they of error attack the healthy cells of the skin. This causes the immune system to produce more T lymphocytes, as well as reproduce new skin cells faster than normal.
It is not clear what exactly causes the violation of the immune system, although it may be that some role to play some genes and environmental factors.
Psoriasis is inherited. One of the three psoriasis patients have a close relative with the disease. However, it is still not clear what is the role of genetics in the onset of psoriasis. The results of the study indicate that, for the development of psoriasis can find several genes. Probably, make the person more susceptible to this disease can their various combinations. However, it is inherited is not the own psoriasis, but only a predisposition to it, that is, the presence of these genes does not mean that you necessarily will develop this disease.
The triggers of psoriasis
Many people, the symptoms of psoriasis appear or are enlarged after an event, which is called the trigger. If you know your triggers, this can help you prevent the worsening of the symptoms. Common examples of triggers:
- damage to the skin, for example, a cut, a scratch, bite of insect or sunburn (this is called a phenomenon Kebner);
- the abuse of alcohol;
- is prohibited;
- the stress;
- hormonal changes, especially in women (for example, during the period of pubertal and menopause);
- some medicines, such as, for example, lithium, some medication, anti-malaria, anti-inflammatory drugs, including ibuprofen, ACE inhibitors (for treatment ) and beta-blockers (for the treatment of congestive heart failure);
- infection of the throat — in some people, especially children and young adults after streptococcal infections of the throat develops a form of psoriasis is called guttate psoriasis, although in the majority of cases, after streptococcal infections of the throat psoriasis does not occur;
- other diseases of the immune system, such as HIV, which cause the appearance or worsening of psoriasis.
Psoriasis is not contagious and, therefore, cannot be transmitted from one person to another.
The diagnosis of psoriasis
As a general rule, for the diagnosis of psoriasis is enough to visual inspection of the skin.
In more rare cases require taking a biopsy (a small sample of skin), which is then sent to a laboratory for study under the microscope. Is to allow to identify a specific type of psoriasis and rule out other skin diseases, such as seborrheic dermatitis, flat red lichen simple chronic ringworm of pink and ringworm.
Usually, the diagnosis and the treatment of psoriasis is performed under the supervision of a dermatologist expert in skin problem diseases. If the doctor suspects you have psoriatic arthritis, which sometimes occurs as a complication when psoriasis, you can send to a rheumatologist. A rheumatologist is a doctor who specializes in arthritis.
You can take a sample of blood for conducting tests to exclude other diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, and also have an x-ray of the joints affected by the disease.
The treatment of psoriasis
Fully cure the psoriasis is not possible, however, with treatment it is possible to reduce the severity and frequency of their exacerbations. Typically, the treatment of psoriasis goes under the supervision of a dermatologist, in case of involvement in a process of the joints is assigned to the council rheumatologist. If the symptoms of psoriasis expresses very and poorly respond to the treatment, the doctor may refer you for admission to the hospital, in the department of dermatology.
One or the other method of treatment is applied depending on the type and severity of psoriasis and the areas of the skin, embraced the disease. If psoriasis symptoms expressed moderately and does not accumulate, a doctor, possibly limited to assign to the open air, for example, in the form of a cream. In the acute phase is generally assigned to the more severe, treatment with medicines, taken possession.
There is a wide range of tools for the treatment of psoriasis, but it can be difficult to determine which tool more efficiently. Talk with your doctor if you feel that the treatment will not work or if you have side effects that cause discomfort.
Treatment methods are divided into 3 categories:
- local treatment — in the skin, are indicated creams and ointments;
- phototherapy — your skin will radiate a certain kind of ultraviolet ray;
- reception system by mouth or by injection medicines that have corrective action for all over the body.
Often, multiple treatment methods to use. As well as the patient of psoriasis, it is necessary to a long-term treatment, has the sense to draw up a plan for handling medications, it is necessary to do on a daily basis. The doctor must regularly monitor your condition and, if necessary, adjust the treatment plan.