Finding an effective cure for psoriasis will be easier for scientists if they can find out the causes of its occurrence accurately. The question "why? " Arises not only in the luminaries of science, but also in every patient who has to fight the disease. Theories about incentives began to emerge hundreds of years ago. Today we already have dozens of guesses, but all are still waiting for scientific evidence. Studies on the possible causes of psoriasis will help many patients to prevent the recurrence of the disease, and healthy people may not face it at all.
Theory of descent
The world dermatologist has succeeded in proving one of the causes of the emergence of psoriasis - this is a genetic predisposition. Today, 60% of all psoriasis patients have relatives with the same problem. Such conclusions encourage scientists to study in more detail the theory of descent from scaly lichen.
On 5 April 2013, the WHO Secretariat compiled a research report on the area. I successfully installed the following:
- if one of the parents is sick in the family, the risk of the child's illness is 14%;
- if both parents are affected in the family, this risk increases to 41%;
- if your sister or brother is sick - 6%.
In this case, psoriasis can appear even after several generations, "passing" the previous one.
An important task for biochemists is to find out which genes are responsible for that inheritance. Studies on patient genomes have identified nine gene loci that may be related to psoriasis. However, the exact single gene responsible for the offspring of the disease has not yet been determined.
It is only known that it is not the scaly lichen itself that is inherited, but only the tendency for it. This means that people whose relatives have similar problems do not necessarily suffer from psoriasis. Therefore, it should not be considered an exclusive hereditary disease. In order for psoriasis to manifest itself, it needs additional pathogens, which can also be considered the cause.
Also, there is still the question of the remaining 40% of patients - why do they get sick if no one in their family has the same problem? This task forces scientists to find the cause of scaly lichen further.
Infections and viruses as pathogens
The theory of infectious diseases emerged as one of the first, it was first investigated about two centuries ago. 19th-century scientists were convinced of the faults of pathological microorganisms and diligently sought to determine who was responsible for the disease. This explanation seems most obvious, as psoriasis in patients can suddenly appear and even suddenly become remission. And today there are supporters of this idea among scientists.
Infectious theorists believe that pathogens send impulses to the vegetative and endocrine systems, which affect their function. Such changes interfere with the body's normal ability to respond to environmental influences, to adapt to it. As a result, if we add another provoking factor, the skin cells die not in 30 days (which is normal for them), but in 4-5 days, which is why a group of keratin cells appear on the hands, on the head, on the faceor the whole body. inflammation.
For years, doctors have studied fungi and bacteria, trying to find a connection between them and the cause of the disease. But among the pathologically known pathological organisms none can be the "trigger" of this dermatosis. Today, the contagious theory of scaly lichen appearance is not considered primary, but it is not at all rejected. There is still a link between psoriasis attacks and infections.
It has been shown that angina, acute respiratory viral infections, streptococcal, tonsillitis and other infections often accompany the first outbreak of scaly lichen, and at the stage of remission, it causes recurrence. But most doctors tend to believe that an infection only gives rise to a manifestation of an existing disease.
The viral nature theory of this disease is also the first theory to emerge. However, this assumption has completely collapsed since medicine found out that psoriasis does not spread from person to person. However, there is a virus that persists in the body for many years, reduces immunity and can cause psoriasis if the skin’s immune system is damaged. In practice, there are cases of blood transfusion from a sick person to a healthy person, even if a healthy body is not infected with lichen scaly.
Impaired metabolism theory
One of the features observed by doctors during psoriasis is low temperature in patients. At first, this was considered one of the symptoms of the disease, but over time, doctors gave it a different meaning to this phenomenon. The fact is that a constant drop in temperature indicates disrupted metabolism.Patient blood tests have confirmed that patients with psoriasis have too much cholesterol in adults and children.
Such indicators indicate a violation of lipid metabolism in the body. This in turn leads to rapid keratinization of skin cells, which is why some scientists consider psoriasis as a cholesterol diathesis. However, it has not been possible to determine whether cholesterol increased before or after the first outbreak.
In addition to the cholesterol in the patient's body, the balance of minerals and vitamins is disturbed, these changes also lead to serious consequences. It is found that vitamin C in patients with excessive lichen scaly, and vitamins B6, B12, A are insufficient. Also notice that they have corrupted content:
Transitions in mineral complexes significantly reduce the body's adaptive and protective functions. That is, scientists believe that metabolic disorders can create an ideal platform for the disease: weakening the immune system, shortening the lifespan of skin cells, and so on. With an annoying factor (trigger), the disease persists and the first symptoms appear. What factors can influence this, we will also consider below. Such a transition causes not only inflammation of the body, but also psoriasis on the nails.
Such violations in the balance of useful components are confirmed by the laboratory. Therefore, while treating psoriasis, it is dangerous for patients to take their own vitamins. In complex therapy, diet must be used, often starvation and low-calorie nutrition, as carbohydrate metabolism in patients is also disrupted. The positive development of such activities partly supports the theory of metabolic disorders.
But most doctors consider such changes to be a consequence, not a cause of disease. Such skepticism is based on the fact that metabolic disorders slowly lead to other symptoms at first, and psoriasis appears in most cases immediately on the skin.
Hormonal disorders in pathogenesis
Patient statistics show that women are slightly more likely to suffer from psoriasis than men. Moreover, in poor sexual intercourse with such problems, outbreaks of psoriasis symptoms are seen mainly during the period of ovulation and menstruation. Such characteristics in the "behavior" of the disease encourage scientists to think of hormonal factors in the development of the disease.
Indeed, in the event of failure on a hormonal background, patients often experience relapse: during pregnancy, menopause, taking hormone medications, and others. This hypothesis is supported by general statistics of the first manifestations of the disease. In women, the initial symptoms occur at the age of 15, in men a little later - by 20-25 years. This is due to the fact that hormonal balance occurs later on stronger sex.
But this theory also finds opposition in the face of scientists. The fact that the hormonal background shift caused the outbreak of dermatosis today does not raise doubts among doctors, however, this is considered to be the cause of the disease. The hypothesis that hormones can cause psoriasis in healthy people is ruled out, because the first symptoms and recurrence of the disease occur against the background of "calm" hormones.
Psychosomatic of this disease
A study by the World Health Organization in the field of psoriasis revealed that 2% of the total population of the planet suffers from this disease. At the same time, the proportion of patients in developed and megalopolized countries is much higher than in the suburbs or less developed countries - on average, is 4. 6%. They began to study unusual tendencies, hoping to find the cause of psoriasis. Scientists' research and conclusions about this phenomenon are that psoriasis can be caused by psychological reasons.
The skin is designed to reflect the general condition of the body, all changes in health conditions, including psychological instability, are "filtered" on it. Some doctors tend to believe that psoriatic plaques are the body's way of expressing nerves. Hence statistical fluctuations: in large numbers, life is more unstable, associated with a lot of stress, in contrast to life more measured in a small town.
Psychologists who are also involved in the treatment of patients are more susceptible to this theory. It is believed that mental disorders not only affect morals, but also the organic component, namely the body. So, various changes in the nervous system can cause digestive disorders, skin rashes, respiratory problems, changes in heart rate.
These interruptions include:
- Desire suppression. For example, "I want to live with someone else / work at another job / hit my boss / move". The suppression of such desires leads to the fact that adrenaline is stored in the body and gradually damages its organs and functions.
- Stress, neurosis, depression. Such changes can be the cause of similar metabolic disorders, hormonal disorders, etc.
- Guilt, unfulfilled tasks.
- Dissatisfied with your own body.
- Persistent feelings of fear, anger, or other strong emotions.
Treatment with sedatives and psychological training gives significant positive results to the patient, which works in accordance with the psychosomatic properties of psoriasis. Even doubts about babies (where do they get psoriasis? ) Are explained by psychologists. It is well known that newborns can feel and respond to the mother's condition and well-being. Therefore, if there is a problem with the mother, the baby can undergo various changes, up to pathology.
Child care is also seen as a factor in the development of scaly lichen in children. For example, if there is no motherly love, a child experiences strong emotions like an adult (pain, fear, hatred). The body, in turn, tries to report damage, and papules and plaques appear on the skin.
Excessive parental care can also result in such consequences, but this case occurs mainly in families with children from 4 years of age. The formed personality strives to gain more freedom, and the parent, on the other hand, strives to bind the child to himself or herself. The resulting conflict affects the sensitive body of the child in the form of an inflamed rash.
Today, the theory of the causes of psoriasis is considered one of the major, along with immunology. Charming scaly lichen therapy includes self-improvement, elimination of negative thoughts and stress, and relaxation. For treatment, they even set up meditation and yoga classes, travel, hobbies, which help patients no worse than medications. However, the course and progression of the disease indicate that psychological factors are far from the only one.
Hypothesis in the event of impaired immunity
Research in the field of genetic theory of the origin of psoriasis has shown that all patients have experienced decreased cell immunity. This feature is also inherited, but can also arise as a result of gene mutations. Scientists suggest that with congenital or acquired tendencies, damaged skin may experience autoimmune attacks. That is, the body considers the affected skin cells to be hostile and attack them.
This assumption is supported by patient blood tests and studies on plaque weighing. It turns out that in the keratinized cells there is actually an antigenic complex, and antibodies to this complex are found in the blood. In healthy people, this is not observed in the blood or in the dermis.
Such analysis shows that immune disorders play an important role in the formation of the first focal psoriasis. In the treatment of complex drugs, taking into account this fact, antihistamines are used to reduce the invasion of the immune system against their own cells. However, there are still a number of factors that influence the course of the disease and its recurrence, while not related to immunology, therefore, of all the theories considered, none are unanimously accepted.
Causes of preventable recurrence
The search for the cause of this disease led to the emergence of many theories and hypotheses awaiting their scientific justification. Although we can not find a cause, we have a long list of factors that cause relapse.
The first of these factors is stress, a negative shift in the nervous system triggers the onset of the disease and provokes an existing psoriasis outbreak. Given this statement, doctors recommend that their patients avoid stressful situations if possible.
Patients are shown an active lifestyle, sports, travel.
In about 14% of patients, scaly lichen begins at the site of trauma and skin damage, this may occur if a person already has a predisposition to psoriasis. Scratches, scratch bites, or rashes can be places of papules and plaques. Patients should carefully monitor the condition and hygiene of the dermis, treat the wound site with hydrogen peroxide and apply a bandage or plaster.
Regular moisturizers are also recommended for body and scalp care, as dry skin tends to recur. You need to leave the scrub and exfoliation, a hard cloth, so as not to injure the skin again. You need to moisturize your body with hypoallergenic creams, baby ointments or oils. At the first signs of a rash, you can not rely on reviews and photos on the Internet to "make" a diagnosis independently. This will only take valuable time, it is better to see a specialist.
Taking medications (both tablets and medication ointments) should be monitored by a physician, especially antibiotics and immunomodulators. Even vitamin supplements can provoke the development of this disease, especially vitamins C, A, B. If you are infected with an infection or fungus, you should definitely see a doctor and not do self-treatment. It is important not to bring the viral disease to a chronic form and not to delay going to the doctor.
Proper nutrition is very important. Patients are given a diet that will strengthen the body and reduce the risk of relapse. For each patient, this is an individual nutritional system based on the stage of the disease, the level of immunity, and the presence of concomitant diseases. It is important not to break the established dietary rules, avoid snacks, allergenic foods (honey, nuts, chocolate, citrus fruits, red foods, etc. ).
Therefore, patients must maintain a completely healthy lifestyle: exercise, monitor nutrition and strengthen moral health. This also includes the mandatory rejection of alcohol, as even small doses cause an outbreak of the disease. These principles will work to prevent not only psoriasis, but also many other diseases.